Cell-wall deficient bacteria
Cell-wall deficient bacteria (CWDs) have been linked to many diseases including arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other so-called autoimmune diseases.
         While I (Farris) was working on The Potbelly Syndrome I decided that CWDs did not play a large role in obesity, diabetes, or heart disease, so I ignored them and focused on Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPN). Later I realized that CPN and CWDs are linked to many of the same diseases, so I've become more interested in CWDs. I'm adding this page for anyone interested in them.
Life history. Most bacteria are enclosed in cell walls that keep all of their parts together and protect them-–somewhat-–from immune systems. After fighting bacteria for millions of years, our immune systems have learned how to pierce the cell walls of many bacteria. Many antibiotics also work by destroying cell walls. When their cell walls are pierced, bacteria more or less explode. Then large immune cells called macrophages clean up the mess.
         To avoid cell-wall attacks, the bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma evolved a way to live without cell walls. Consequently, many of the antibiotics and immune-system tricks that kill other germs won't work against Mycoplasma.
         Although Mycoplasma are less susceptible to cell-wall attacks, they are more susceptible to other attacks. Because of this, some bacteria have learned to live either with or without cell walls, depending upon circumstances. Cells that can live with or without cell walls are said to be pleomorphic. Non-Mycoplasma bacteria that are living without cell walls are called L-forms.
         CWD bacteria are sometimes called nanobacteria.
Additional information on CWDs
Amy Proal. Amy Proal is a very bright grad student and an expert on CWDs and related topics. I hope she writes a book. Her website is: bacteriality.com⁄
ARF. Just as the Vanderbilt and Wheldon protocols have been developed to kill CPN, a number of protocols have been developed to kill CWD bacteria. The best known of these is the Marshall protocol. The Autoimmunity Research Foundation (ARF) is a group of Marshall Protocol supporters, and their website is a good place to learn about CWDs and the so-called autoimmune diseases. The ARF website is at: www.autoimmunityresearch.org. There is more information on CWDs and the Marshall Protocol at:
Katherine Poehlmann. Cell-wall deficient bacteria, especially Mycoplasma, are discussed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Infection Connection, by Katherine Poehlmann, Ph.D. I highly recommend this book to anyone with an intractable chronic illness. Her website is at: www.ra-infection-connection.com⁄
Lida Mattman. Dr. Poehlmann believes that the best resource on CWDs is Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth Pathogens by Lida H. Mattman (Hardcover, 3rd edition, 2001). At $159.95, Dr. Mattman's book is for people who are very interested in CWDs.
PubMed. About five-hundred PubMed citations refer to cell-wall deficient bacteria. Here are a few of them:
Astrauskiene & Bernotiene. New insights into bacterial persistence in reactive arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007 May-Jun;25(3):470-9. Review.
Michailova L, Kussovsky V, Radoucheva T, Jordanova M, Markova N. Persistence of Staphylococcus aureus L-form during experimental lung infection in rats. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Mar;268(1):88-97. Epub 2006 Dec 13.
Chaudhry R, Varshney AK, Malhotra P. Adhesion proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:690-9. Review.
Simon BE, Ybarra N, Bonneval AO, Barry RA. Plasmid DNA delivery by D-alanine-deficient Listeria monocytogenes. Biotechnol Prog. 2006 Sep-Oct;22(5):1394-9.
MacDonald AB. A life cycle for Borrelia spirochetes? Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):810-8. Epub 2006 May 22.
Zilbauer M, Dorrell N, Boughan PK, Harris A, Wren BW, Klein NJ, Bajaj-Elliott M. Intestinal innate immunity to Campylobacter jejuni results in induction of bactericidal human beta-defensins 2 and 3. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov;73(11):7281-9.
Michailova L, Kussovski V, Radoucheva T, Jordanova M, Berger W, Rinder H, Markova N. Morphological variability and cell-wall deficiency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 'heteroresistant' strains. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Aug;9(8):907-14.
Broxmeyer L. Is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria? Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(4):731-9.
Marshall TG, Marshall FE. Sarcoidosis succumbs to antibiotics--implications for autoimmune disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2004 Jun;3(4):295-300. Review.
Koch AL. Cell wall-deficient (CWD) bacterial pathogens: could amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) be due to one? Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29(3):215-21. Review.
www.potbellysyndrome.com is owned and maintained by Russell Farris, and the information contained here is based upon the research and personal and professional experiences of Russell Farris. It is not intended as a substitute for consulting with your physician or other healthcare provider. Any attempt to diagnose and treat an illness should be done under the direction of a healthcare professional.
          Russell Farris does not advocate the use of any particular healthcare protocol but believes the information in this website should be available to the public. Russell Farris is not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of the suggestions, preparations, or procedures discussed in this website. Should the reader have any questions concerning the appropriateness of any procedures or preparation mentioned, the web owner strongly suggests consulting a professional healthcare advisor.

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